Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Palermo, Sicily - A Tale of Two Cathedrals

Cathedral at Monreale

For those who are up of their religious history, Palermo is an interesting city. It has not one, but two major cathedrals. Yes, one of them is technically in the town of Monreale, but both were built with intention of being the headquarters of the diocese in the Palermo region. How did this happen? Well, here is the story.

It all begins with the Saracen invasion of the 9th century. At that time the town of Palermo was the center of trade in northwest Sicily. This didn’t change, but the control of the town switched from Catholic to Muslim. And it stayed that way for around two hundred years. During this period, the archbishop of Palermo was forced to live outside the city walls in the town of Monreale.

The Death and Agony of William II of Sicily - By Petrus de Ebulo (XII-XIII century) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Then in 1072, the crusades, led by an Anglo-Norman army, brought control of Palermo back to the Christians. The seat of the Church moved back into Palermo. And here is where the competition began.

The Norman Cathedral of Monreale

The Cathedral at Monreale

In the year 1172 King William II of Sicily ordered the construction of a new cathedral. Legend has it that fell asleep while hunting in the forest of Monreale and dreamt that he would find a treasure there. So he had his men dig up the forest, and low and behold, a treasure he did find. He dedicated this money to start construction on a cathedral in Monreale. William II hired the best craftsmen and his designers created on the most beautiful church interiors in the world.
The building is 102 meters long and it is divided into three sections, the nave, the choir and the sanctuary. The interior of the church is covered with extensive gold mosaics. The mosaics start at a height of about ten feel, and cover the walls and the ceiling. These works of art tell the stories of the old and new testaments of the bible. 

The nave is divided into three sections but two rows of columns. Each columns individually decorated, and no two are alike. The sanctuary is also divided into three sections, with the altar in the center and entrances to two chapels on either side. Above the altar is a massive mosaic with the face of Jesus looking down on the proceedings and parishioners. In the center is the choir, which is flanked on both sides by the pipes of the cathedrals massive organ. Behind the pipes, on the south side of the Cathedral are the tombs of King William I and King William II of Sicily.

Tomb of William II

Jesus, looking down above the altar

1/2 of the organ's pipes

The Cathedral of Palermo

Cupola of the Palermo Duomo

With the king building this beautiful cathedral in Monreale, why, you might ask, would anyone want to build another cathedral just 5 Km away? Well, King William II was Sicilian, and the Archbishop of Palermo was Anglo-Norman, and while he was loyal to the king, he had his own view of where the power of the church should sit. This was especially true given the fact that the Saracens had torn down the original cathedral, which had been dedicated by Pope Gregory I, and built a mosque on its site. So Archbishop Walter Ophamil had the mosque torn down, and began construction of a new cathedral. He was going to reclaim that space for the Catholic Church.

To me, the beauty of this building is its exterior. The original building was erected in 1185, but there were additions over the next 400 or so years. This has created a very complex look to the edifice. While there is no one style, the different architects did a fantastic job at making sure that these disparate sections blended together to make a whole that exceeds the sum of its parts. 

Catalonian Porch

Moorish style brickwork

Add caption

St. Rosalie - patron of Palermo

This is where we stayed in Palermo - right across from the Cathedral

So there you have it. Two magnificent cathedrals, built at the same time, less than 5 Km apart. Both are worth seeing when you come to Sicily. 

Getting There: 
The Palermo Cathedral is at the southern end of Via Vitorrio Emmanuel III, near the Porto Nouvo. The free jitney that runs in the old section of town stops about 25m from the church.

The Monreale Cathedral is in Monreale. The #389P goes from Piazza Indipendenza to to Monreale. It stops about 400m below the church on the main road into town. Also all of the Hop On-Hop Off bus tours have a trip to the cathedral at least once a day.

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Walking the Golden Gate Bridge

If you have been reading my blog for a while, you should know that my engineering background makes “big things” must see for me. So on a recent trip to San Francisco I took advantage of the time to visit the Golden Gate Bridge on more than one occasion.

One of the most iconic structures in the United States, the Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1937, connecting San Francisco with Marin County, to the north. The Golden Gate is the name of the straight that connects the San Francisco Bay with the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is 1.7 miles long and its roadway is 220 feet above the mean high water mark.

By US National Park [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

One problem with sight-seeing in San Francisco is unpredictable weather. The cold water of the Pacific Ocean is a fog generator, and every morning that we were in town started as a cloudy, foggy day. So one morning I headed to the bridge with the hope that the skies would clear. Unfortunately they didn’t. The clouds remained in place. When I arrived I could barely see the bridge from the overlook next to the highway. Like many people that day, I walked out far enough to take some photos, then it was back to my car to head for warmer climes.

A couple of days later I returned. This time it was a beautiful, sunny day. The Golden Gate Bridge loomed over the bay. The support towers rise 760 feet above the water, 540 feet above the roadway, and its “international orange” color stood out against the blue skies. In my opinion, the Golden Gate Bridge is one of the most beautiful man-made structures, and it fits in with its natural surroundings. It is perfectly designed for its placement.

When you visit, your first stop on the San Francisco side should be the visitor’s center. It sits in a plaza with a small parking lot (see below for other parking options), a snack bar and a cafĂ©. There are several historical and scientific displays about the bridge. From the visitor’s center, was up to the overlook. From here you have a great view of the bridge and the Golden Gate. 

The walkways on the bridge can get crowded on a nice day, especially if only one walkway is open. There are hundreds of pedestrians, along with a large number of bicyclists, so keep your eyes open.

Walking along the bridge is a unique experience. First, it is windy. Even on a calm day the temperature difference between the cool ocean air and warm air over inland California create a near constant breeze. Second, it is high. 220 feet above the mean high water mark. This height gives a wonderful view of Alcatraz, San Francisco and the bay. It is the view that makes the walk worth the effort. The Golden Gate and San Francisco Bay are beautiful. The view from the bridge is one of a kind.

looking back at the visitor's center

Freighter passing under the Goden Gate Bridge

Getting There – The Bridge sits at the northwestern corner of the San Francisco peninsula. It is completely surrounded by The Presidio, the decommissioned military base. There are multiple bus lines from the center of the city to the bridge toll plaza. I would highly recommend parking at the main lot in the Presidio, near the Presidio Welcome Center.  You can park all day there for $8.50 and take a free shuttle to the bridge, and to other places around the Presidio. This also gives access to several, hiking and bicycle trails, restaurants, and other activities.